Question: Can Statistics Be Manipulated?

How does Bill Gates lie with statistics?

Published in 1954, “How to Lie with Statistics” is an introduction to statistics — and a primer on how they can be manipulated.

It’s “more relevant than ever,” Gates says.

“One chapter shows you how visuals can be used to exaggerate trends and give distorted comparisons,” he says..

How do you lie about statistics?

How to Lie with Statistics is a book written by Darrell Huff in 1954 presenting an introduction to statistics for the general reader. Not a statistician, Huff was a journalist who wrote many “how to” articles as a freelancer….How to Lie with Statistics.First editionAuthorDarrell HuffPublisherW. W. Norton & CompanyPublication date19541 more row

Can statistics prove anything?

Statistics can never “prove” anything. All a statistical test can do is assign a probability to the data you have, indicating the likelihood (or probability) that these numbers come from random fluctuations in sampling.

What does it mean to manipulate numbers?

: to use or change (numbers, information, etc.) in a skillful way or for a particular purpose. The program was designed to organize and manipulate large amounts of data. He’s always been good at manipulating numbers in his head.

How can an average be misused?

It is statistical err to apply the average of a group of data points to a single point and assume it to be true. … Averages are misleading when used to compare different groups, apply group behavior to an individual scenario, or when there are numerous outliers in the data.

How statistics can be misleading?

Misleading statistics are simply the misusage – purposeful or not – of a numerical data. The results provide a misleading information to the receiver, who then believes something wrong if he or she does not notice the error or the does not have the full data picture.

Can statistics be manipulated for those who really understand the subject matter?

Can statistics be manipulated for those who really understand the subject matter? … Subject matter experts can manipulate any statistical data if they desire to. Improper sampling methods, whether intentional or not, can manipulate the data and provide a false statistic.

Are statistics always true?

Statistics are a favorite evidence of many writers and speakers. They provide actual numbers in support of ideas and conclusions. … Such evidence is not only difficult to refute, it’s often accepted as the final word in what’s true or not true. Statistics are a prime source of proof that what you say is true.

Can statistics be misused explain with two examples?

Statistics, when used in a misleading fashion, can trick the casual observer into believing something other than what the data shows. The false statistics trap can be quite damaging for the quest for knowledge. … For example, in medical science, correcting a falsehood may take decades and cost lives.

Can numbers really lie?

People often use numbers as a crutch to support weak arguments, presuming that any stat is a good one, capable of automatically validating their position. The truth is that numbers can and do lie to us every day.

What is statistical manipulation?

“Misinforming people by the use of statistical material might be called statistical manipulation (Huff, 100).”